Category: Fishes | Resource | Threatened fishes

Hamilton’s barila, Barilius bendelisis (Hamilton, 1807)

Hamilton’s barila: Barilius bendelisis

Systematic position
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii  (Ray-finned fishes)
Order: Cypriniformes (Carps)
Family: Cyprinidae (Minnows and carps)
Sub-family: Rasborinae (Danioninae)
Genus: Barilius
Species: B. bendelisis

Varieties: Two varieties are available in Bangladesh (Shafi and Quddus, 2001)-
Barilius bendelisis var. cosca (খোকসা জয়া)
Barilius bendelisis var. chedra (চেদ্রা জয়া)

Barilius bendelisis bendelisis (Hamilton, 1807)
Barilius bendelisis chedra (Hamilton, 1822)
Barilius howesi Barman, 1986
Bendelisis bendelisis (Hamilton, 1807)
Cyprinus apiatus
Valenciennes, 1840
Cyprinus bendilisis Hamilton, 1807
Cyprinus chedra
Hamilton, 1822
Cyprinus tila Hamilton, 1822
Leuciscus branchiatus McClelland, 1839
Leuciscus chedra (Hamilton, 1822)
Leuciscus tila (Hamilton, 1822)
Opsarius bendelisis (Hamilton, 1807)

Common/local names
English: Hamilton’s barila
Bangladesh: Joia (জয়া), Hiralu (হিরালু), Tila (তিলা), Koksa (খোকসা) and Chedra (চেদ্রা)
India: Korang (Assam); Khoksa and Joia (West Bengal); Angura (Bihar); Dahrah, Kandri, Paktah and Kunnul (Panjab); Bhareli (Himachal Pradesh); Pathrill-chaahl (Jammu);  Bahgra-bahri (Orissa);  Jodhia, Jhorya and Jhor (Maharashtra); Aguskitti and Vennathi-kenadi (Tamil Nadu) (Talwar and Jhingran, 1991).

Distributions: Bangladesh, Pakistan,  Nepal and Sri Lanka (Talwar and Jhingran, 1991; IUCN Bangladesh, 2000).

Conservation status: Endangered in Bangladesh due to habitat loss (IUCN Bangladesh, 2000).

Conservation needs: Habitat protection and improvement (IUCN Bangladesh, 2000).

Morphology: Body elongate and compressed with moderately cleft mouth. Two short pair of barbels (rostral and maxillary) present. Dorsal profile less convex than that of ventral. Dorsal fin entirely inserted in advance of anal fin. 39-45 (IUCN Bangladesh, 2000); 39-42 (Rahman, 1989 and 2005; Shafi and Quddus, 2001); 40-45 (Talwar and Jhingran, 1991) scales on lateral line.

This species appears to show considerable variation while it gets older so that they can be identified individually among different species. Head 3.8-4.5 in standard, 4.8-5.6 in total length. Height 3.8-4.3 in standard, 4.8-5.3 in total length. Eye 4.2-6.0 in head, snout 1.2-2.0,  interorbital  1.2-3.5 (Rahman, 1989 and 2005).

Fin formula:
D. 9 (2/7); P1. 13-14; P2. 9; A. 10 (2/8) (Rahman, 1989 and 2005; IUCN Bangladesh, 2000)
D ii 7; A ii-iii 7-8; P I 14; V i 8 (Talwar and Jhingran, 1991)
D. 9(2/7); P. 13-15; V. 9; A. 9-10(2-3/8); C. 18 (Shafi and Quddus, 2001)

Barilius bendelisis var. cosca (খোকসা জয়া): Fins are short and not spread; thin and weak outer pectoral rays; pectoral fins do not reach pelvic fins (Rahman, 1989 and 2005).

Barilius bendelisis var. chedra (চেদ্রা জয়া): Fins are more developed, larger and well spread; numerous pores on snout; side scales are with scarlet red; brownish above, bluish and silvery below (Rahman, 1989 and 2005).

Maximum lengths: 15.5 cm (Talwar and Jhingran, 1991; IUCN Bangladesh, 2000); 22.7 cm (Shafi and Quddus, 2001; Rahman, 1989 and 2005).

Habitats: Hill streams and rivers along the base of hills (IUCN Bangladesh, 2000). Found in rivers of Rangpur, Dinajpur, Sylhet and Mymensingh (Shafi and Quddus, 2001; Rahman, 1989 and 2005). Occurs in hill streams and rivers with rocky bottom (Rahman, 2005). Not found in Kerala, India and important commercial hillstream fish in Jammu and perhaps other areas of eastern Himalaya (Talwar and Jhingran, 1991).



Barman RP. 1986. A new freshwater fish of the genus Barilius Hamilton (Pisces: Cyprinidae) from West Bengal, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 83 (pt 1): 171-173.

Hamilton F. 1807. A journey from Madras through the countries of Mysore, Canara, and Malabar, … London. A journey from Madras through the countries of Mysore, Canara, and Malabar, … v. 3: i-iv + 1-479 + i-xiii + index.

IUCN Bangladesh. 2000. Red book of threatened fishes of Bangladesh, IUCN- The world conservation union. xii+116 pp.

McClelland J. 1839. Indian Cyprinidae. Asiatic Researches v. 19 (pt 2): 217-471, Pls. 37-61.

Rahman AKA. 1989. Freshwater Fishes of Bangladesh, 1st edition, Zoological Society of Bangladesh, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, pp. 97-98.

Rahman AKA. 2005. Freshwater Fishes of Bangladesh, 2nd edition, Zoological Society of Bangladesh, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, pp. 114-115.

Shafi M and Quddus MMA. 2001. Bangladesher Matsho Shampad (Fisheries of Bangladesh) (in Bengali), Kabir publication. Dhaka, Bangladesh. pp. 140-142.

Talwar PK and Jhingran AG. 1991. Inland Fishes of India and Adjacent Countries, Vol. I, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi-Calcutta, pp. 346-347.


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