Category: Fishes | Resource | Threatened fishes

Silond catfish, Silonia silondia (Hamilton, 1822)

Systematic position
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii (Ray-finned fishes)
Order: Siluriformes (Catfishes)
Family: Schilbeidae (Schilbeid catfishes)
Genus: Silonia
Species: S. silondia

Synonyms
Ageniosus lurida Swainson, 1838
Pimelodus silondia Hamilton, 1822
Silonia lurida (Swainson, 1838)
Silundia gangetica Valenciennes, 1840

Common/local names
English: Silond catfish and Silondia vacha
Bangladesh: Shillong (শিলং)
India: Silon, Dhain, Silond, Siland, Bachawa and Banspati (Talwar and Jhingran, 1991).

Distribution: Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Myanmar (Talwar and Jhingran, 1991).

Conservation status: Endangered in Bangladesh due to over exploitation and habitat loss (IUCN Bangladesh, 2000).

Morphology: Body elongated and deeply compressed. Mouth terminal and lower jaw little longer. Snout broad and rounded. Eyes with narrow adipose lids. Barbels 2 pairs. Dorsal spine comparatively weak than pectoral spine and both spines finey serrated posteriorly.

The body color is yellowish-green on back, silvery purple on flanks and abdomen, golden tinge present on both sides of head. Caudal, anal and pelvic bases yellowish.

Fin formula:
D1. I/7; D. 0; P. I/11-13; V. 6; A. 40-46 (4/35-44); C. 17 (Bhuiyan, 1964)
D. I/7; Pi. I/12-13, P2. 6; A. 41-46 (Rahman, 1989 and 2005; IUCN Bangladesh, 2000)
D1 I/7; D2 0; P I/11-13; V 6; A 40-46 (4-36/42) (Shafi and Quddus, 2001)

Maximum lengths and weight: 26 cm (Bhuiyan, 1964), 100 cm (Talwar and Jhingran, 1991), 80 cm (Rahman, 1989 and 2005) and 80-100 cm (IUCN Bangladesh, 2000).

Rahman (1989 and 2005) recorded 3.9 kg fish from the Gacher Duhar beel in Sylhet (Bangladesh).

Habitats: Commonly found in estuaries and rivers (mainly fluviatile) but also be alive in tanks and large reservoirs (IUCN Bangladesh, 2000). Gregarious and moves in shoals (IUCN Bangladesh, 2000). Inhibits estuaries and rivers throughout Bangladesh (Rahman, 1989 and 2005). Not found in closed waters (Shafi and Quddus, 2001).

Food and feeding: Carnivorous and voracious feeder (Bhuiyan, 1964; IUCN Bangladesh, 2000) and for this it also causes considerable damage to fisheries. Takes fish, rotten organic matters etc. as food (Shafi and Quddus, 2001).

Breeding: Breeds during monsoon and adults ascend from estuaries into large rivers for breeding (Rahman, 2005).

Importance: Used as delicious food fish. It also a sporting fish. Silonia silondia has a great commercial importance of Stanley reservoir that is located on River Cauvery at Mettur in Tamil Nadu province in India (Yadav, 1999). Flesh is not very wholesome (Bhuiyan, 1964).

Harvesting: Seine nets, cast nets, kachal net, chandi net and hooks and lines are used to catch this fish (Shafi and Quddus, 2001).

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REFERENCES

Bhuiyan AL. 1964. Fishes of Dacca, Asiat. Soc. Pakistan, Pub. 1, No. 13, Dacca, pp. 77-78.

Cuvier G and Valenciennes A. 1840. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome quinzième. Suite du livre dix-septième. Siluroïdes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. v. 15: i-xxxi + 1-540, Pls. 421-455. [Valenciennes authored volume. i-xxiv + 1-397 in Strasbourg edition.]

Hamilton F. 1822. An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges and its branches. Edinburgh & London. An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges and its branches.: i-vii + 1-405, Pls. 1-39.

IUCN Bangladesh. 2000. Red book of threatened fishes of Bangladesh, IUCN- The world conservation union. xii+116 pp.

Rahman AKA. 1989. Freshwater Fishes of Bangladesh, 1st edition, Zoological Society of Bangladesh, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, pp. 177-179.

Rahman AKA. 2005. Freshwater Fishes of Bangladesh, 2nd edition, Zoological Society of Bangladesh, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, pp. 197-198.

Shafi M and Quddus MMA. 2001. Bangladesher Matsho Shampad (Fisheries of Bangladesh) (in Bengali), Kabir publication. Dhaka, Bangladesh. pp. 210-211.

Swainson W. 1838. The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. A. Spottiswoode, London. The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1: i-vi + 1-368.

Talwar PK and Jhingran AG. 1991. Inland Fishes of India and Adjacent Countries, Vol. 2, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi-Calcutta, pp. 612-613.

Yadav BN. 1999. Fish and Fisheries, Daya Publishing House, Delhi, India, p. 215.

 

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Student, Department of Fisheries, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh. Email: nymphish10@gmail.com. More...

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